info@pherbal.com




Quinine






Quinine

Scientific Name: Cinchona succirubra

Common Name(s): Red bark , Peruvian bark , Jesuit's bark , China bark , cinchona bark , quina-quina , fever tree


Quinine is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste.It is a stereoisomer of quinidine which, unlike quinine, is an antiarrhythmic.Quinine contains two major fused-ring systems: the aromatic quinoline and the bicyclic quinuclidine.

Quinine occurs naturally in the bark of the cinchona tree, though it has also been synthesized in the laboratory. The medicinal properties of the cinchona tree were originally discovered by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru and Bolivia; later, the Jesuits were the first to bring cinchona to Europe. Though it has been synthesized in the laboratory, quinine occurs naturally in the bark of the cinchona tree.




The medicinal properties :


Quinine was the first effective treatment for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, appearing in therapeutics in the 17th century. It remained the antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s, when other drugs took over. Since then, many effective antimalarials have been introduced, although quinine is still used to treat the disease in certain critical situations. Quinine is available with a prescription in the United States.

Quinine is also used to treat nocturnal leg cramps and arthritis, and there have been attempts (with limited success) to treat prion diseases. It was once a popular heroin adulterant and is now not as popular in the world, although many countries (such as Scotland) still have quinine-contaminated heroin selling on the streets.Originally discovered by the Quechua Indians of Peru, the bark of the cinchona tree was first brought to Europe by the Jesuits.

It is usual for quinine in therapeutic doses to cause cinchonism; in rare cases, it may even cause death (usually by pulmonary edema). The development of mild cinchonism is not a reason for stopping or interrupting quinine therapy and the patient should be reassured. Blood glucose levels and electrolyte concentrations must be monitored when quinine is given by injection; the patient should also ideally be in cardiac monitoring when the first quinine injection is given (these precautions are often unavailable in developing countries where malaria is most a problem).

Cinchonism is much less common when quinine is given by mouth, but oral quinine is not well tolerated (quinine is exceedingly bitter and many patients will vomit after ingesting quinine tablets): Other drugs such as Fansidar (sulfadoxine (sulfonamide antibiotic) with pyrimethamine) or Malarone (proguanil with atovaquone) are often used when oral therapy is required. Blood glucose, electrolyte and cardiac monitoring are not necessary when quinine is given by mouth.

Quinine can cause paralysis if accidentally injected into a nerve. It is extremely toxic in overdose, and the advice of a poisons specialist should be sought immediately.Quinine in some cases can lead to constipation, erectile dysfunction, and a loose stool. the cinchona tree were originally discovered by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru and Bolivia; Later, the Jesuits were the first to bring the cinchona to Europe.Quinine is a flavour component of tonic water and bitter lemon.



Product Code: 199       



 

Viedo clips
Site's Map



 
Clock
Users
Manager

Torabiyan
 
نظرسنجی
What's your idea about unityb of being book